Following the collapse of the USSR, the armed conflict of 1991-1994 over Nagorny Karabakh saw Armenia and Azerbaijan embroiled in a ruthless and bloody war. To this day, the fragile peace in the region is supported solely by a ceasefire agreement known as the Bishkek Protocol. The conflict saw a mass exodus of Azerbaijanis from Armenia and Armenians from Azerbaijan. Nagorny Karabakh, which in Soviet times had been home to 145 000 Armenians, 40 000 Azerbaijanis, plus small Kurdish, Russian and Greek minorities, became virtually mono-ethnic.
The European Partnership for the Peaceful
Settlement of the Conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh